Krippendorff, K. . Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Andrevski, G. , Richard, O. C. , Shaw, J. D. , & Ferrier, W. J. . Racial diversity and firm performance: The mediating role of competitive intensity. Journal of Management, 44(7): 2909–33.
Anglin, A. A. , Wolfe, M. , Short, J. C. , McKenney, A. M. , & Pidduck, R. . Narcissistic rhetoric and crowdfunding performance: A social role theory perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 33: 780–812.
Anglin, A. A. , Short, J. C. , Drover, W. , Stevenson, R. , McKenney, , & Allison, T. H. . The power of positivity? The influence of positive psychological capital language on crowdfunding performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 33: 470–492.
Carroll, C. E. . The relationship between firms’ media favorability and public esteem. Public Relations Journal, 3(4): 1–32.
Chi, L. , Ravichandran, T. , & Andrevski, G. . Information technology, network structure and competitive action. Information Systems Research, 21(3): 543–570.
Cober, R.T. , Brown, D.J. , & Levy, P.E. . Form, content, and function: An evaluative methodology for corporate employment web sites. Human Resource Management, 43: 201–218.
Corman, S. R. , Kuhn, T. , McPhee, R. D. , & Dooley, K. J. . Studying complex discursive systems. Human Communication Research, 28(2): 157–206.
D’Aveni, R. A. , & MacMillan, I. C. . Crisis and the content of managerial communications: A Study of the focus of attention of top managers in surviving and failing firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4): 634–657.
Davies, J. , & Joglekar, N. , & . Supply chain integration, product modularity, and market valuation: Evidence from the solar energy industry. Production and Operations Management.
Deephouse, D. . Media reputation as a strategic resource: An integration of mass communication and resource-based theories. Journal of Management, 26(6): 1091–1112.
Deephouse, D. , & Carter, S. . An Examination of Differences Between Organizational Legitimacy and Organizational Reputation*. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2): 329–360.
Deephouse, D. L. . Does isomorphism legitimate? The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4): 1024–1039.
Dunn, M.B. , & Jones, C. . Institutional logics and institutional pluralism: the contestation of care and science logics in medical education, 1967-2005. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55: 114–149.
Duriau, V. J. , Reger, R. K. , & Pfarrer, M. D. . A content analysis of the content analysis literature in organization studies: Research themes, data sources, and methodological refinements. Organizational Research Methods, 10(1): 5–34.
Elsbach, K. . Managing organizational legitimacy in the California cattle industry: The construction and effectiveness of verbal accounts. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(1): 57–88.
Etter, M. , Colleoni, E. , Illia, L. , Meggiorin, K. , & D’Eugenio, A. . Measuring organizational legitimacy in social media: assessing citizens’ judgments with sentiment analysis.. Business & Society, 57(1): 60–97.
Fanelli, A. , Misangyi, V. F. , & Tosi, H. L. , . In charisma we trust: The effects of CEO charismatic visions on securities analysts. Organization Science, 20: 1011–1033.
Gamache, D. L. , McNamara, G. M. , Mannor, M. J. , & Johnson, R. E. . Motivated to acquire? The impact of CEO regulatory focus on firm acquisitions. Academy Of Management Journal, 58: 1261–1282.
Greenwood, R. , & Suddaby, R. . Institutional entrepreneurship in mature fields: The big five accounting firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1): 27–48.
Jones, C. , Boxenbaum, E. , & Anthony, C. . The immaterial of the material in institutional logics. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 39: 51–75.
Jones, C. , & Livne-Tarandach, R. . Designing a frame: Rhetorical strategies of architects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29: 1075–1099.
Jones, C. , Maoret, M. , Massa, F. G. , & Svejenova, S. . Rebels with a cause: The formation, contestation and expansion of the de novo category Modern Architecture, 1870-1975. Organization Science, 23: 1523–1545.
King, B. G. . A political mediation model of corporate response to social movement activism. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(3): 395–421.
Kiyatkin, L. , Reger, R. K. , & Baum, J. R. , . Thought leadership on business and social issues: Why U.S. business schools lag corporations and how they could improve. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, Spring, Issue 41.
Lamertz, K. , & Baum, J. . The legitimacy of organizational downsizing in Canada: An analysis of explanatory media accounts. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 15(1): 93–107.
Loewenstein, J. , Ocasio, W. , & Jones, C. . Vocabularies and vocabulary structure: A new approach linking categories, practices, and institutions. Academy of Management Annals, 6: 41–86.
Lyles, M. A. , & Reger, R. K. . Managing for autonomy in joint ventures: A longitudinal study of upward influence. Journal of Management Studies, 30: 383–404.
McKenny, A. F. , Anguinis, H. , Short, J. C. , & Anglin, A. H. . What doesn't get measured does exist: improving the accuracy of computer-aided text analysis. Journal of Management.
McKenny, A. F. , Short, J. C. , Ketchen, D. J. , Payne, G. T. , & Moss, T. W. . Strategic entrepreneurial orientation: configurations, performance, and the effect of industry and time. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. 12: 504–521.
McKenny, A. F. , Short, J. C. , & Payne, G. T. . . Using CATA to elevate constructs in organizational research: validating an organizational-level measure of psychological capital. Organizational Research Methods, 16: 152–184.
Meyskens, M. , & Carsrud, A. . Nascent green-technology ventures: An exploratory study assessing the role of partnership diversity in firm success. Small Business Economics.
Meyskens, M. , & Carsrud, A. . The role of partnerships in early stage ventures: An exploratory study. Journal of Enterprising Culture.
Meyskens, M. , & Paul, K. . The evolution of corporate social reporting practices in Mexico. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2): 211–227.
Meyskens, M. , Robb-Post, C. , Stamp, J. , Carsrud, A. , & Reynolds, P. . Social ventures from a resource-based perspective: An exploratory study assessing global Ashoka Fellows. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 34(4): 661–680.
Mishina, Y. , Pollock, T. G. , & Porac, J. F. . Are more resources always better for growth? Resource stickiness in market and product expansion. Strategic Management Journal, 25: 1179–1197.
Moss, T. , Short, J. C. , Payne, G. T. , & Lumpkin, G. T. . Dual identities in social ventures: An exploratory study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35: 805–830.
Palmer, T. B. , & Short, J. C. . Mission statements in U.S. colleges of business: An empirical examination of their content with linkages to configurations and performance. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7: 454–470.
Park, G,. et al. . Automatic personality assessment through social media language.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(6): 934–952.
Payne, G. T. , Brigham, K. H. , Broberg, J. C. , Moss, T. W. , & Short, J. C. . Organizational virtue orientation and family firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21: 257–285.
Payne, G. T. , Moore, C. B. , Bell, G. , Zachary, M. A. . Signaling organizational virtue: An examination of virtue rhetoric, country-level corruption, and performance of foreign IPOs from emerging and developing economies. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 7(3): 230–251.
Pennebaker, J. W. , Mehl, M. R. , & Niederhoffer, K. G. . Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1): 547–577.
Petrenko, O. V. , Aime, F. , Ridge, J. , & Hill, A. . Corporate social responsibility or CEO narcissism? CSR motivations and organizational performance. Strategic Management Journal, 37: 262–279.
Petrie, K. J. , Pennebaker, J. W. , & Sivertsen, B. . Things we said today: A linguistic analysis of the Beatles. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2(4): 197–202.
Pfarrer, M. D. , Pollock, T. G. , & Rindova, V. P. . A tale of two assets: The effects of firm reputation and celebrity on earnings surprises and investors’ reactions. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5): 1131–1152.
Pollock, T. , & Rindova, V. . Media legitimation effects in the market for initial public offerings. The Academy of Management Journal, 46: 631–642.
Pollock, T. , Rindova, V. , & Maggitti, P. . Market watch: Information and availability cascades among the media and investors in the US IPO market. The Academy of Management Journal, 51(2): 335–358.
Porac, J. F. , Wade, J. B. , & Pollock, T. G. . Industry categorizations and the politics of the comparable firm in CEO compensation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1): 112–144.
Rindova, V. , Petkova, A. , & Kotha, S. . Standing out: How new firms in emerging markets build reputation. Strategic Organization, 5(1): 31–70.
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Robbins, S. S. , & Stylianou, A. C. . Global corporate web sites: An empirical investigation of content and design. Information & Management, 40: 205–212.
Short, J. C. , Broberg, J. C. , Cogliser, C. C. , & Brigham, K. H. . Construct Validation Using Computer-Aided Text Analysis (CATA). Organizational Research Methods, 13(2): 320–347.
Short, J. C. , McKenny, A. F. , Reid, S. W. , . More than words? Computer-aided text analysis in organizational behavior and psychology research.. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1): 415–435.
Short, J. C. , & Palmer, T. B. . Organizational performance referents: An empirical examination of their content and influences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90: 209–224.
Short, J. C. , & Palmer, T. B. . The application of DICTION to content analysis research in strategic management. Organizational Research Methods, 11(4): 727–752.
Short, J. C. , Payne, G. T. , Brigham, K. , Lumpkin, G. T. , & Broberg, C. . Family firms and entrepreneurial orientation in publicly traded firms: A comparative analysis of the S&P 500. Family Business Review, March: 9–24.
Sonpar, K. , & Golden-Biddle, K. . Using content analysis to elaborate adolescent theories of organization. Organizational Research Methods, 11(4): 795–814.
Tetlock, P. , Saar-Tsechansky, M. , & Macskassy, S. . More than words: quantifying language to measure firms’ fundamentals. Journal of Finance, 63: 1437–1467.
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Zachary, M. A. , McKenny, A. F. , Short, J. C. , Davis, K. , & Wu, D. . Franchise branding: An organizational identity perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(4): 629–645.
Zavyalova, A. , Pfarrer, M. D. , Reger, R. K. , & Shapiro, D. L. . Managing the message: The effects of firm actions and industry spillovers on media coverage subsequent to wrongdoing. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 1079–1101.
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Web Resources

  • Text Analysis Overview


    A comprehensive summary of the Content Analysis field including resources and software tools

  • Atlas TI

    Analysis Tools

    A computer software program used mostly, but not exclusively, in qualitative research or qualitative data analysis.

  • CAT Scanner

    Analysis Tools

    A free Windows-based application for conducting computer-aided text analyses.

  • The Content Analysis Guidebook Online


    Analysis Tools

    A cloud-based scraping toolkit for transforming digital text, images and social media into structured data


    Analysis Tools

    A text analysis application that uses word lists to search text for qualities of certainty, activity, optimism, realism, and commonality.

  • Event Study Tools


    A project which seeks to facilitate the dissemination and use of standard research tools to study the economic impact of discrete events.

  • LIWC

    Analysis Tools

    A text analysis software program which calculates the degree to which people use different categories of words across a wide array of texts, including emails, speeches, poems, or transcribed daily speech.


    Analysis Tools

    A QDA software which supports all individuals performing qualitative data or content analysis by helping to systematically evaluate and interpret textual data.

  • Nvivo

    Analysis Tools

    A QDA software package useful for working with very rich text-based and/or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volumes of data are required.

  • Provalis

    Analysis Tools

    A QDA software application suite.

  • ReCal: Reliability calculation

    Analysis Tools

    An online utility that computes intercoder/interrater reliability coefficients for nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio-level data.